Types of Stem Cells

Our bodies have hundreds of different types of cells, each of which has its own specific function, e.g., muscle cells for contraction, nerve cells for stimulation and organic cells for metabolism.

However, stem cells are the original cells that can develop into various different types of cells. They have strong reproductive capabilities and can influence neighbouring cells (other cell types) by emitting signalling substances.

Stem cells repair and regenerate and have strong anti-inflammatory properties.

Stem cells contain the fundamental basis of healing and regeneration. If specific tissue is inflamed, weakened or damaged, stem cells immediately carry out their localised regenerative function.


Embryonic stem cells are produced in the early developmental stages of an embryo. They grow very fast and can develop into all other types of cells. Therefore, they are vital for research. Embryonic stem cells are the first cells that are produced directly after the fusion of the egg and the sperm. They can develop into each of the over 200 cell types in the body. The first eight embryonic stem cells can even develop into another human being. An example of this is the conception of identical twins. Late embryonic stem cells can still develop into every cell type, but can no longer develop into a human being.


Stem cells from umbilical cord blood and tissue are very young adult stem cells, which can be collected from the umbilical cord at birth and stored for decades. Above all, they are used to treat diseases of the haematopoietic system, in particular, in oncology for leukemic diseases. They contain comparatively few mesenchymal stem cells which are used to treat typical degenerative illnesses of the skin, cartilage, muscle, bone, etc.


Adult stem cells have already gone through a certain specialisation process and can now only develop into certain types of cell. Haematopoietic stem cells, for example, can develop into all types of blood cells but not nerve or muscle cells. The advantage of these cells: Everyone has a store of these cells in many organs for their entire life. This makes it easier to use them for research and medical purposes.
Adult stem cells are present in a person’s body after birth. They are responsible for regenerating special body tissues. They are present throughout the body for the purpose of replacing damaged cells or cells, which have degenerated as part of the ageing process (apoptosis), and thus support the regeneration process.
However, this process declines with time. Therefore, a young person will recover more quickly, whereas the recovery process becomes increasingly slow in old age.

At Klinik Professor Sailer, the term stem cell therapy always refers to adult stem cells.


Mesenchymal stem cells are a particular type of adult stem cells.
They can be isolated from various tissues, for example, from liver tissue, bone marrow, cartilage tissue and fatty tissue. The highest concentration of mesenchymal stem cells can be found in fatty tissue.
A pain-free, complication-free liposuction procedure is carried out to extract these cells. This can normally be carried out on an outpatient basis.

Mesenchymal stem cells have high differentiation potential, meaning that they can develop into various types of cells. They have strong anti-inflammatory properties and have regenerative properties for tendons, ligaments, muscles and cartilage. As a result of this property, in particular, they are a blessing for therapeutic use in skin rejuvenation, as well as in the treatment of arthrosis, joint wear and tear and painful, chronic, inflammatory conditions of the musculoskeletal system in the shoulders, hips, hands and knees. In addition, they are particularly well-suited to promoting wound healing, as well as treating scars and wound infections.

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